30 de setembre 2017



Threats, Biology & Expansion

Confirmed sighting in Devon - These deadly Asian hornets have now invaded the UK and pose threat to Britain’s honey bees!!!

The accidental introduction of the Asian hornet or more accurately the yellow-legged hornet into France and South Korea over ten years ago and its subsequent spread to neighbouring countries has been worrying both governments and beekeepers alike. Many people are now seeking more information on this new threat to our beloved honey bees. Hornet biology is very different to that of honey bees and this can lead to misunderstandings and false assumptions. So, this book is aimed at anyone wanting to learn more about hornets, why the Asian hornet possesses such a threat, and what you can do about it.

While the natural history of hornets makes their eradication impossible, it is important that all interested parties are well informed about their biology and potential impact. The Asian hornet will continue to expand its range into new countries irrespective of the measures taken, so education is the best way to lessen their impact.

This book aims to cover all the key aspects of the hornets’ biology including the impact they have on both people and honey bees. The information presented is gained from various sources during the many years I studied hornets in Asia (mainly Japan), and more recently via the ever-expanding scientic literature on the spread and impact of the Asian hornet both in France and South Korea.


  • Preface
    • My first encounter with hornets

  • 1. General Introduction to Hornets & Yellow-Jackets
    • Hornets & wasps, so what is the difference?
    • Hornets and yellow-jackets of the world
    • Hornets and yellow-jackets of Europe

  • 2. Hornet & Yellow-Jacket Invasions
    • Accidental introductions of wasps and hornets around the world 
    • What traits helps wasps to invade
    • The Asian hornet and its European cousins
    • The Asian hornets’ arrival in France and subsequent spread
    • The Asian hornets’ arrival in the UK
    • Was the Asian hornet eradicated from the UK?
    • The Asian hornets’ arrival in South Korea and subsequent spread

  • 3. Hornet Life Cycle
    • Introduction 
    • Hibernation (Oct/Nov to April) 
    • Post-hibernation migrations 
    • The embryo nest (April/May-June), solitary period 
    • Protection of the embryo nest from ants 
    • Queen usurpation 
    • Cooperative period (June) 
    • The worker nest (June-August) or polyethnic period
    • Colony relocation
    • Reproductive phase (September-October)
    • Mating 
    • Colony decline phase (October-November) 
    • Nest Thermoregulation 
    • Diet 

  • 4. Hornet Preditors & Pests
    • Predators of Hornets
    • Internal parasites of Hornets

  • 5. Hornets as Pests, Food & Control Methods
    • Introduction 
    • Hornets attacking Eastern honey bees 
    • Hornets attacking Western honey bees 
    • Hornets as stinging insects 
    • Hornets as pests of fruit crops 
    • Hornets as food for humans 
    • Hornet control methods 
    • Protecting your honey bee colonies 
    • The future 

    • Further reading (books) 
    • Further reading (scientific papers)